The anchored instruction approach is an attempt to help students become
more actively engaged in learning by situating or anchoring instruction
around an interesting topic. The learning environments are designed
to provoke the kinds of thoughtful engagement that helps students
develop effective thinking skills and attitudes that contribute to
effective problem solving and critical thinking.
Authentic activities use real-world resources in an activity such
as authentic resources, experiences, and sharing. Authentic activities
are useful beyond the classroom walls.
Authentic assessment refers to assessment tasks that resemble reading
and writing in the real world and in school (Hiebert, Valencia &
Afflerbach, 1994; Wiggins, 1993). Its aim is to assess many different
kinds of literacy abilities in contexts that closely resemble actual
situations in which those abilities are used. For example, authentic
assessments ask students to read
real texts, to write for authentic purposes about meaningful topics,
and to participate in authentic literacy tasks such as discussing
books, keeping journals, writing letters, and revising a piece of
writing until it works for the reader. Both the
material and the assessment tasks look as natural as possible. Furthermore,
authentic assessment values the thinking behind work, the process,
as much as the finished product.
A cognitive apprenticeship is a one-on-one mentoring relationship
that involves substantive conversations. The mentor teaches the student
critical thinking skills and problem solving skills.
Community of Learners (COL)
A community of learners includes anyone and any thing (resource) that
is involved in working towards a learning goal. These people and things
don’t necessarily have to be in close proximity or within the
Cooperative and Collaborative Learning
Cooperative and collaborative learning involves students working together,
but differs greatly from group work. Collaborative learning actually
involves substantive conversations, where students work together to
reach goals, actively participating in
group work and coming away from it with a different perspective on
Distributed intelligence refers to intelligence spread across the
system. If you remove a part of the system, you lose a
significant amount of information. This idea supports the idea that
not all information lies in the teacher’s head. If you don’t
get everyone involved, you will miss out on something.
An expert system is a computer-based system that holds all information
that a human expert would have on a topic.
Generative learning involves students being presented with a situation
and having to determine what the problem(s) are and search for solutions,
using their critical thinking and problem solving skills.
Higher-order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
Higher-order thinking involves understanding complex concepts and
applying sometimes conflicting information to solve a problem, which
may have more than one correct answer.
Instructional technology is simply the use of technology to educate
or teach something.
Intelligent Tutoring Systems
Intelligent tutoring systems are technology-based applications that
can determine a learner’s strengths and weaknesses and diagnose
what areas that learner needs additional work in.
Learner control is an attractive component of web-based instruction
or other interactive instruction that allows the learner to control
sequence, content, learning activities and pacing. Ideally, the instruction
should take a profile of the learner's
experiences and ability to best meet learner's needs.
Media attributes include TV, video, audio, animation, graphics, etc.
These attributes create a rich learning environment that appeal to
a variety of learning characteristics.
Microworlds are simulated environments.
Mindtools are tools that reduce cognitive load. Pencil and paper are
a classic example.
Instructors take different approaches to problems, presenting different
ideas and methods, allowing their students to see problems from different
points of view.
Problem Based Learning
Students are presented with a problem and come up with their own solutions,
using critical thinking and problem solving skills.
Reciprocal teaching is a role-playing situation in which the learner
“teaches” the teacher about a certain topic.
A scaffold refers to aid that a learner receives as he/she is just
beginning to learn a new task. Scaffolds are gradually taken away
as he/she progresses and becomes better at the task at hand. Eventually
scaffolds are eliminated and the learner
is able to successfully complete the task without any help.
Self-regulated learning involves consistent monitoring and modifying
of one’s behaviors, in order to maximize learning.
Situated cognition involves learning a task in the actual environment
where it happens. Dr. Bradshaw offered the perfect example of learning
how to dive in a swimming pool.
A substantive conversation is a conversation that results in the learner’s
altered view of the problem. The learner comes
away from this conversation with a deeper understanding of the topic
at hand and perhaps a broader, more open-minded perspective.
Systematic design is pre-instructional planning that involves ISD
process… task, needs, and audience analyses, objectives
and goal development, etc.
Visual literacy refers to the ability to, not only communicate outwardly,
but to also recognize and understand incoming visuals.
Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
the process of using computers to enhance communication between students,
instructors, experts and learning resources. Includes hypermedia,
e-mail, conferencing, bulletin boards, listservers, internet, world
wide web, audioconferencing and videoconferencing. By using computer
technology to communicate; e-mail, asynchronous discussion boards,
synchronous discussions (i.e. chatting).Computer-Mediated Communication
is a process of human communication via computers,
involving people, situated in particular contexts, engaging in processes
to shape media for a variety of purposes.
The ability to acquire information, analyze and evaluate it, and reach
a conclusion or answer by using logic and reasoning skills.
The disciplined ability and willingness to assess evidence and claims,
to seek a breadth of contradicting as well as confirming information,
to make objective judgments on the basis of well supported reasons
as a guide to belief and action, and to
monitor one’s thinking while doing so (metacognition). The thinking
process that is appropriate for critical thinking depends
on the knowledge domain (e.g.: scientific, mathematical, historical,
anthropological, economic, philosophical, moral) but the universal
criteria are: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance,
sound empirical evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth and fairness.
A complex set of cognitive skills employed in problem-solving and
intellectual consideration and innovation. Critical thinking requires
mental agility and thoughtful consideration: one must, almost simultaneously,
be able to process and then analyze what is being presented, to make
connections between various bits of information, to draw
inferences from what has been stated directly, to question any assumptions
and connections made, and to remain generally skeptical until sufficient
proof is offered.
a formal learning activity which occurs when students and instructor
are separated by geographic distance or by time, often supported by
communications technology such as television, videotape, computers
any text that contains links to other documents - words or phrases
in the document that can be chosen by a reader and which cause another
document to be retrieved and displayed.
The combination of text, video, graphic images, sound, hyperlinks,
and other elements in the form typical of Web documents. Essentially,
hypermedia is the modern extension of hypertext, the hyperlinked,
text–based documents of the original Internet. Hypermedia attempts
to offer a working and learning environment that parallels human thinking—that
is, one in which the
user can make associations between topics, rather than move sequentially
from one to the next, as in an alphabetic list. For
example, a hypermedia presentation on navigation might include links
to astronomy, bird migration, geography, satellites, and radar.
the method of instruction selected to maximize student learning. Instructional
strategies are the techniques, methods,
sequences, media, and other means used to teach things to learners.
Interaction / Interactivity
The degree to which the user engages with the multimedia program.
Learner Centered Design
Learner Centered Design focuses the design of instruction on the needs
and characteristics of the learners who will be
involved in receiving the instruction. The design thus is adapted
to the needs of the learners rather than the instructor or the curriculum
being of foremost importance. The idea is to tailor the instructional
presentations, activities, and assessments to
suit the learners of individual and group characteristics, which may
change as they progress through the instruction.
knowledge of one’s own knowledge and cognitive processes, and
the ability to actively monitor and consciously regulate them. The
concepts of self-monitoring, self-evaluation, self-regulation, self-control,
self-instruction, self-consciousness, and meta-attention all belong
to metacognition. Metacognition is very important for humans. It guides
people to select, evaluate, revise, and abandon cognitive tasks, goals,
the universe of teacher-learner relationships that exist when learners
and instructors are separated by space and/or by time. Factors influencing
transactional distance are: the interaction between learners and teachers,
the structure of the instructional program, and the self-directedness
of the learner.Moore says that the separation between instructor and
learner leads to
special patterns of learner and teacher behaviors, a psychological
and communications space between the two, and the potential for misunderstanding.Ø
Transactional distance is relative and different for each person and
exists to some degree
even in a traditional classroom environment.
Zone of Proximal Development
The Zone of proximal development is the point during which a student
can learn to do an exercise if properly guided. In
this phase, the student cannot complete the task alone, but he/she
can be successful with the guidance of an expert. The
student then can do the task more and more independently through the
use of scaffolding until he/she is able to complete
the task alone